Applicable to Gentiles?
The Sabbath is commanded to be observed by one of the Ten Commandments. (Ex 20:8.) Jesus taught the Law was still to be observed by His disciples. (Matt. 5:17-19.) The Sabbath-command applies to sojourners / foreigners (i.e., Gentiles) just as much to Israel. Deut. 5:12-15; Lev. 25:6; Exo 23:12. (On what part of the Law applies to Gentiles, see our discussion at this link.)
The promise in Isaiah 56 of salvation to Gentiles ("my salvation is about to come", 56:1) was predicated on two things: "keep the Sabbath from profaning it and keep his hand from doing evil." (Isaiah 56:2) or "who keep My Sabbaths, and choose things that please Me, and take hold of my covenant." (Isaiah 56:4,6). Essentially, the salvation of a Gentile -- according to God's word -- turns on obeying the Sabbath and keeping from evil as outlined in His covenant, i.e., taking hold of those commands which apply expressly to sojourners / foreigners. God promises eunuchs in return for obedience that "I will give them an everlasting name which will not be cut off." (Isaiah 56:5.) God similalry then promises the Gentiles / "foreigners" who similarly obey that "I will bring to My holy mountain And make them joyful in My house of prayer," and "their burnt offerings and their sacrifices will be acceptable on My altar...." (Isaiah 56:7.)
Early Church Was Predominantly Obedient On Sabbath
In obvious reliance upon Jesus (and hence rejection of Paul's abolition of Sabbath), the early church continued to obey Sabbath on Saturday for several hundred years while worshipping either on Saturday or on the Lord's Day - our present Sunday.
The Anti-Nicene church records from 125 A.D. to 325 A.D. clearly show the church's general practice was:
- to keep the rest commanded for Sabbath on Saturday, but they typically also assembled on Sabbath for worship; and
- on what we today call Sunday (and they called the Lord's Day), they did not rest but typically assembled for worship.
See the Eastern canonical book (adopted 692 AD) and early canon of Syrian-Antioch church Constitution of the Apostles (ca. 300 A.D.) Book 7, ch. XXIII at this books.google link ("but the Sabbath and the Lord's day keep as festivals, because the former is the memorial of creation and the latter of the resurrection"); ch. XXX at this link (Lord's day is day to assemble, not rest); Book 5, ch. XX at this link)("Every Sabbath and every Lord's day hold your religious assemblies").
Bingham, a Christian scholar, summarizes numerous ancient sources besides Constitutions and confirms this was the overwhelming practice of the early church: "The ancient Christians were very careful in the observation of Saturday, or the seventh day... It is plain that all the Oriental [Eastern] churches, and the greatest part of the world, observed the Sabbath as a festival... Athanasius likewise tells us that they held religious assemblies on the Sabbath, not because they were infected with Judaism, but to worship Jesus, the Lord of the Sabbath, Epiphanius says the same." (Joseph Bingham, Antiquities of the Christian Church (1878) Vol. II, Bk. xx, Ch. 3, Sec. 1, 66. 1137,1136). See also Bingham, Works of Bingham at 542 ("Sabbath of every week was observed in many churches;" Id. at 543 (communion was sometimes on Sabbath but typically on Sunday.) See also Bingham, Antiquities of the Christian Church Vol. IV at 233 (quotes Athanasius again).
This means the Sabbath persisted for these several hundred years despite Paul's pronouncement in 50 AD that the Sabbath was abolished. (See our link on Paul's words doing so.)
Etymological Practices That Speak Volumes of Persistent Early Observance
This explains why if you spoke a European language today, you would be saying "Sabbath" for day seven of each week instead of "Saturn's-Day" -- Saturday in English. In Spanish, day seven is "Sabado" -- Sabbath, not "Saturno." In Italy, day seven is "Sabato" -- not "Saturno." In Russian -- Subbota; in Portguese --- Sábado. In Romanian --- Sâmbat. In Greek -- Savato. In Armenian - Shabat. In Georgian - Sabati, etc. ("Weekday Names," Wikipedia.) In fact, even outside Europe we find Sabbath continues as the name used in many nations simply modified to their language: Somalia -Sabti; Arabic - as-Sabt; Malta - Is-Sibt; Malaysia - Sabtu; Indonesia - Sabtu; and Sudan - Sabtu.
Further, the Didache from 100-200 AD is confirmed as correct that "Sunday" was at the same time kept weekly as the "Lord's Day." The European tongues likewise all call our English "Sun-Day" the "Lord's Day," i.e., "Domingo" (Spanish) and "Domenica" (Italian), etc. As Answers.com explains, English is anomolous in erasing the faith-aspect of what originally was present - "Sabbath" and the "Lord's Day" for days seven and one:
In Spanish, that leaves the words for Saturday and Sunday that weren't adopted using the Roman naming pattern. Domingo, the word for Sunday, comes from a Latin word meaning "Lord's day." And sábado, the word for Saturday, comes from the Hebrew word Sabbath, meaning a day of rest (in Jewish and Christian tradition, God rested on the seventh day of creation). ("Names of Days").
This is an etymological proof that there was such a long standing original Sabbath-observance practice that Spaniards, Italians, Portuguese, Romanians, Greeks, Russians, etc., refused to buckle in the 300s when the name change was being enforced. These Europeans to this day call day seven "Sabbath."
The British Christians were more pagan and amenable to change. When in the 300s AD Rome insisted they adopt a celestial god's name to be associated with each day (see next section), they had no problem using "Saturn" for Saturday and the "Sun-god" for Sunday. As Origins of the English Names for the Days of the Week Explains: "English, like most of the Germanic languages, preserves the original pagan/sun associations of the day."
(This is similar to the English calling Jesus' Passion week "Easter" after the goddes "Eostre" (Celtic for Osiris), but in Spain and Italy it is still called "Passover" -- Pascua and Pasqua respectively -- the Spaniards and Italians et al. retaining the passion's original spiritual connection to the Hebrew feast).
When Did The Rules Change?
Then in 321 A.D., Rome at Constantine's urging instituted the observance of a day of rest to their Sun-God, i.e., Sun-Day. (See our link.)
The Roman Catholic Church gradually adopted thereafter Sun-day as a day of rest in place of the traditional Sabbath. As Eusebius explains in his commentary on Psalms, a Sabbath rest should now be on Sunday and "we" (the Roman Church to which he belonged) "transferred" the Sabbath to Sun-day, the Lord's Day:
And all things that were duty to do on the Sabbath, these we have transferred to the Lord's day, as more appropriately belong to it, because it has precedence and is first in rank, and more honorable than the Jewish sabbath." (Robert Cox, Sabbath Literature (1865) Vol. I at 361.) See also, Robert Cox, Literature of the Sabbath Question (1865) at 363.)
It was only in 363 A.D. that the Roman Catholic Church went so far as to make it a heresy and anathema to rest on the Saturday-Sabbath. At the Council of Laodicea of 363 A.D.—one of the first church councils controlled primarily by the Roman Bishop—it was decided to deem heretical and anathema (cursed) the practice of keeping Sabbath. (Canon 29.) (Nicene and PostNicene Fathers (1990), supra, XIV at 148.)
The Council claimed Sabbath-keeping was “judaizing.” (See next quote below.) Even though the term "judaizing" is not found in the NT, this was how by 363 AD Roman Catholicism came to describe the enemies of Paul's doctrine in Galatians even as the Catholics now embraced Paul's anti-law positions. The Catholic Church now claimed any effort to follow the Law given Moses (besides faith) severs one from Christ. Hence, Roman Catholicism now wielded as a pejorative term "judaizer" against those who resisted the Roman rulers' decrees that Sabbath as Saturday was abolished in favor of Sun-Day (Nicene and PostNicene Fathers (1990), supra, XIV at 148.) The decree reads in part:
Christians must not judaize by resting on the Sabbath, but must work on that day, rather, honoring the Lord’s day [i.e., Sunday]; and, if they can, resting then as Christians. But if any shall be found to be judaizers, let them be anathema from Christ. Id., at 148.
See also Bingham, Antiquities of the Christian Church at 235.
The same history is recounted by the Jewish scholar, Abraham Millgram in Sabbath: Day of Delight (1965). We have typed up his four page discussion of such history at this link.
Heroically but without effect, a Roman Catholic Archbishop of Baltimore, Cardinal James Gibbons, tried to confess this error. Perhaps he hoped Catholicism would reverse this error. Gibbons wrote in The Faith of Our Fathers (1917) that “you will not find a single line authorizing the sanctification of Sunday. The Scriptures enforce the religious observance of Saturday, a day which we [Catholics] never sanctify.” (Id., at 89.) He similarly wrote elsewhere:
"For example, nowhere in the Bible do we find that Christ or the Apostles ordered that the Sabbath be changed from Saturday to Sunday. We have the commandment of God given to Moses to keep holy the Sabbath day, that is the 7th day of the week, Saturday. Today most Christians keep Sunday because it has been revealed to us by the Church outside the Bible." ("To Tell You The Truth," Catholic Virginian (Oct. 3, 1947) page 9, quoted in "Gibbons," Wikipedia.)
Hence, Gibbons implied the church could with equal authority change it back to what the Bible dictated. Gibbons' subtelty apparently was too subtle, and no one listened.
Despite heavy pressure from Catholicism beginning in the 300s to end Sabbath observance, many Christians resisted. Good Christians tried to continue resting on Sabbath as had been the tradition from Christ to the late 300s. In the 500s, Pope Gregory the Great (540-604 AD) actually claimed that anyone who wished to still keep the Sabbath by resting from work besides worshipping on the Lord's Day [i.e., on Sunday] had the spirit of the Anti-Christ. Not only that, the pope, relying upon Paul's words in Galatians 5:2, clearly implied that those observing Sabbath were now cut off from Christ. The pope equated them to persons who must endorse circumcision too for Gentiles -- a red-herring:
"What else can I call these but preachers of the Anti-Christ...he must say too that the commandment of circumcision of the body is to be retained. But let him hear the apostle Paul saying in opposition 'If you be circumcised, Christ profits you nothing.' Gal. 5:2.
Philip Schaff, Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers: Second Series (2007) Volume XIII Gregory the Great at 92.
As one can see, the Roman Catholic church knew Paul was its ally to abolish Sabbath to conform to the desires of the Roman state. And this was the period where Rome (the state) wished to do away with Sabbath -- a costly second day of rest during a 7 day week. (Rome could not afford our current 2 days of rest of both Saturday and Sunday.) Rome the state instead required all citizens to worship and rest on Sun-Day (i.e., the day of Sol Invictus, the God-of-the-Sun).
Thus, it was precisely in this period when Paul's writings for the first time were taken very seriously, and were now officially promoted. As Thomas F. Martin in "Vox Pauli," in the Journal of Early Christian Studies says:
"From the mid-300s C.E. to the mid-400s, there was a marked turn towards the figure and theology of Paul, indicated by the flurry of commentaries on Pauline letters written during that period." (Journal of Early Christian Studies - Volume 8, Number 2, Summer 2000, pp. 237-272)
Despite the Western church's late turn towards Paul, the Catholic rulings abolishing Sabbath on Saturday in 363 AD at Rome were never accepted outside of Roman territories. The Eastern Orthodox have always maintained Christians must keep the Sabbath on Saturday while worshipping on Sunday. "Orthodox Christians continue to celebrate Saturday as Sabbath." ("Sabbath in Christianity," Wikipedia.)
In time, Roman Catholicism even hardened its position further in favor of Paulinism's anti-Law position. Thomas Aquinas in the 1200s went so far as to say practicing ritual elements of the Mosaic law (such as the Sabbath rest) was a mortal sin, as it was tantamount to denying that the Messiah had come. (Aquinas, St Thomas (1981) Summa Theologiae (Christian Classics) at 3020, referenced in "Gibbons," Wikipedia.) Doesn't the Bible speak of this -- about the one's calling darkness light, and light darkness? (See Isaiah 5:20.)
For a somewhat shorter PDF version of our article here, click here.
What is the consequence of abandoning Sabbath even though God said it applies to foreigners in community with Israel?
God will only remember His children by those who keep His Sabbaths. (Leviticus 23, Exodus 31:13, Isaiah 56:3-6 and Isaiah 66:22-23)
Daniel 7:25: Prophecy of Changing The Law and Times and Seasons
Some say the Roman Catholic Church is the beast of Daniel because in 363 AD it changed the times and the seasons by moving Sabbath on Saturday to Sunday. See Dan. 7:25. Thus, these same voices --- apparently the Adventist church --- claim anyone resting on Sunday has the mark of the beast. I take no position on those claims. But I do want to address an historically inaccurate rebuttal to such claims.
At a popular website, Sabbath Keepers Refuted, it claims the church never kept Sabbath on Saturday, and if any one set Sunday as Sabbath, it was the Roman government, not the Roman church. Hence, they contend those who obey Sabbath on Sunday do not have the mark of the beast - alleged to be Sunday Sabbatarianism. It claims:
"the universal record of history and the New Testament proves that Christians never kept the Sabbath after the resurrection of Christ." (Sabbath Keepers Refuted, Sabbitarians and Mark of the Beast.)
To repeat, I take no position on whether Sunday-Sabbath is the mark of the beast. Frankly, I highly doubt it. What is clear is the early church often worshipped on Sunday, but it did not rest on Sunday. It rested on Saturday (as well as often worshipped). It was the Roman government that first imposed Sunday as a day of rest. The Roman Catholic Church later joined in urging Christians to CHANGE from resting on Saturday to Sunday. Later the RCC made this a threatening command.
As one can see from the above impeccable scholarly sources and early church historians, the statement Christians "never kept the Sabbath" after the resurrection of Christ is untrue. The opposite is the case. Even as of today, the Eastern Orthodox have two milennia of an unbroken history of keeping the Sabbath on Saturday. The Adventists or whoever make these 'mark-of-the-beast' claims are at least historically accurate.
Sabbath: Is It The 12 Hours From Sunrise Saturday to Sunset?
By the way, it was apparently a late oral tradition in Judaism as a hedge around the Law to start Sabbath rest on the prior evening of Friday. However, the meaning of "Day" in Gen. 1:5 was the daylight portion from sunrise to sunset, and "night" was from sunset to sunrise. Hence, true Sabbath Day rest begins Saturday morning, and ends Saturday at dusk. For an excellent article on this at a website dedicated to this issue, see http://www.12hoursabbath.com Importantly, the author explains that Lev. 23:32 is not support for including the prior evening in the weekly Sabbath rest. That verse instead addresses the Day of Atonement, and how it is measured. Id. The 12 hour sabbath is at 23:3 but the annual 24 hour sabbath is in 23:32 which takes in parts of 2 days, and all of one night.
In agreement, please note that Bingham (quoted above) mentioned that the early Christians rested on "Saturday." There is nothing about adding Friday night to the Sabbath rest. Hence, history confirms Sabbath is Saturday only. And Gen. 1:5 proves this means the daylight period.
A Holy Convocation
The Sabbath Command in Leviticus (unlike in Exodus 20:8) refers to a holy convocation:
3six days is work done, and in the seventh day [is] a sabbath of rest, a holy convocation; ye do no work; it [is] a sabbath to Jehovah [sic: Yahweh] in all your dwellings. (Lev. 23:3.)
"The original Hebrew word that is translated as "convocation" is (pronounced) mik-raw means a called assembly." (Wayne Blank, "Convocation.")
Hebrews 10:25 may speak to this: "Not forsaking the assembling of ourselves together..."
What is required to assemble in compliance with Leviticus 23:3? One commentator says it is simple:
"We should meet and worship with others." ("How do we keep the Sabbath.")
I would say it is more. Jesus says "where two or tree are gathered in my name, there I am in the midst of them." (Matt. 18:20.)
Where would this be? Jesus said the Temple would soon be no more, and "God is a spirit" (who can be anywhere in Spirit), and God then wants a particular kind of worshipper rather than a place of worship:
21Jesus saith to her, `Woman, believe me, that there doth come an hour, when neither in this mountain, nor in Jerusalem, shall ye worship the Father;
22ye worship what ye have not known; we worship what we have known, because the salvation is of the Jews;
23but, there cometh an hour, and it now is, when the true worshippers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for the Father also doth seek such to worship him;
24God [is] a Spirit, and those worshipping Him, in spirit and truth it doth behove to worship.' (John 4:21-24.)
Thus, once the Temple would be gone, a convocation would be at least 2 persons meeting in God's name to pray and worship. Anywhere. God is a Spirit, and can be with us even in a small assembly anywhere. After the Temple would be gone, there is no applicable regulation as to place or duration or even an order of worship. The early church predominantly met in open fields or in homes. See our page "Church Structure." Furthermore, there is no command to meet with as many people as possible. A meeting in your home with your spouse / children / a friend complies with the Sabbath command now that the Temple is gone. As long as you are truly worshipping God.
What if you live where you can find no other believers? How do you comply? I believe that Jesus taught even when you are one by yourself and pray in secret, that the Father still hears and still answers. (Matt 6:6, pray in secret, and father who sees in secret will reward you openly.) Also, in the Original Gospel of Matthew reconstructed by Rives, we read: "Wherever there are two, they are not without God. And wherever there is one alone, I say I am with him." (Matt 18:20, OGM.)
Hence, if you alone are worshipping, is that a holy convocation? I don't see why not. Of course, I would recommend a convocation of at least one other as your aim. This can be with your spouse or child, as long as you pray in spirit and truth, and worship God with praise.
Incidentally, there is no barrier to also worshipping on Sunday. You can do that too. God never says no to more time with us. We can celebrate this as the day of Jesus / Yashua's resurrection.
What is Worship?
Jesus with His disciples went away to quiet outdoor places to pray and sing psalms. Jesus in praying fell on His face -- meaning prostrating himself on the ground. He prayed to the Father in the hearing of His disciples, but apparently it was a private personal prayer.
What should we do? Should we follow Jesus' example?
Ron Owens in an article "Worship Service: A Hindrance or a Highway for Revival" explains what is Biblical worship and that we are not practicing it by-and-large:
The primary word used in the Old Testament for worship is the Hebrew word shachah. In each of its 170 uses, it has the same meaning: to prostrate oneself, to bow down or stoop. In the New Testament, the Greek word for worship, proskuneo, has virtually the same meaning: to crouch, prostrate oneself, to kiss the hand, do reverence, to adore.
Examples from Scripture reveal:
And Abram fell on his face: and God talked with him, saying, (Genesis 17:3)
And I bowed down my head, and worshipped the LORD, and blessed the LORD God of my master Abraham, which had led me in the right way to take my master's brother's daughter unto his son. (Genesis 24:48)
And he said, Nay; but [as] captain of the host of the LORD am I now come. And Joshua fell on his face to the earth, and did worship, and said unto him, What saith my lord unto his servant? (Joshua 5:14)
And Moses and Aaron went from the presence of the assembly unto the door of the tabernacle of the congregation, and they fell upon their faces: and the glory of the Lord appeared unto them. (Numbers 20:6)
Come, let us bow down in worship, let us kneel before the LORD our Maker; (Psalms 95:6)
And all the angels stood round about the throne, and about the elders and the four beasts, and fell before the throne on their faces, and worshipped God, Saying, Amen: Blessing, and glory, and wisdom, and thanksgiving, and honour, and power, and might, be unto our God for ever and ever. Amen. (Revelations 7:11-12)
And he went a little further, and fell on his face, and prayed, saying, O my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me: nevertheless not as I will, but as thou [wilt]. (Matthew 26:39)
Ironically, worship is never done that way in any modern church or assembly:
Today, we see very little of this attitude of stooping, of humbling oneself in worship. Instead, it seems the church is spending an inordinate amount of time standing and celebrating.
In private worship, I suggest you kneel and even bow forward during prayer. If the church you attend does not actually worship God except by the gesture of words, God already said 'they worship me with their lips, but their hearts are far from me.' So perhaps you should find a church that does worship God in a truer sense -- by prostrating yourself while praying. So perhaps start worshipping in your own home where you have no one restricting your worship. There is no rule it must take place in a hall called 'church.' See our article on "Jesus' Words on Church Structure."
And if you wish some psalms (songs) to sing, there are some contemporary songs that are great. I collect my recommendations at this list-link.
For those Christians who obey God's command to rest on Sabbath, here is a Sabbath meditation where God attaches a promise to a Sabbath rest focused upon Him:
"If thou turn away thy foot [on] the sabbath, from doing thy pleasure...not doing thine own ways, nor finding thine own pleasure, nor speaking thine own words: [that] thou shalt delight in Yahweh...I will make thee to ride upon the high places of the earth; and I will feed thee with the heritage of Jacob thy father: for the mouth of Yahweh hath spoken it." (Isaiah 58:13-14.)
Also, remember this verse:
Thou wilt keep him in perfect peace, whose mind is stayed on thee; because he trusteth in thee. (Isaiah 26:3.)
Do Good On The Sabbath!
Follow Jesus' example and do good on the sabbath. Perhaps do a mitzvot -- a good deed.
Justin Martyr in 165 AD wrote in First Apology that after the communion service, "we remind each other of his duty, and the rich relieve the poor, and upon such charitable accounts we visit some or other every day." (First Apology LXXXVI at page 91.) "But the wealthy and the willing, for everyone is at liberty to contribute as they think fitting, [make a collection], and this collection is deposited with the bishop, and out of this he relieves the widow and the orphan, and such as are reduced to want, by sickness or any other cause, and such as are in bonds, and strangers that come from afar...." Id., at 94.)
In conformance with Jesus's commands and the example of the early church, on each sabbath perhaps send a donation to orphans if not visit and care for them in your personal ministry. (I have no affiliation with any of the organizations I recommend below.)
A most deserving ministry is New Life Nicaragua. Watch the video, and learn the story of the family that started it.
New Life Nicaragua
c/o Evangel Fellowship Intl.
PO Box 326
Conway, SC 29528
Its site explains:
This part is really important. Make your check payable to EFI. Please write on the memo line of your check how you want your money directed. For example, nutrition center or child sponsorship or leadership training etc..
One other in Nicaragua is Nuestros Pequenos Hermanos (tax deductible for US Citizens) which runs Christian orphanages in several countries, e.g., Nicaragua, Haiti, El Salvador, etc. Here are images of the happy faces of the children they serve at this link.
The donation page, which takes a credit card is at http://www.nph.org/ws/help/donations.php?lang=en
Their mission statement is at http://www.nph.org/ws/about/mission.php?lang=en and it says:
Nuestros Pequeños Hermanos™ International is a Christian mission that strives to provide a permanent family and home for orphaned, abandoned and other at-risk children who live in conditions of extreme poverty. Our programs provide quality education, health care and spiritual formation with the goal of raising good Christians and productive members of their respective societies.
Another alternative, and one you can do by check with your bill pay, is Orphan Care International (a Christian organization) at http://www.warmblankets.org/ Their mailing address is:
Warm Blankets Orphan Care International
5105 Tollview Drive, Suite 155
Rolling Meadows, IL 60008
Also consider helping widows. In the world, as of July 2010, there are estimated to be over 115 million women living in devastating poverty as a result of becoming widows. See this link.
Tips on Celebrating Sabbath
A Jewish website gives you some tips on Shabbat worship, and books to purchase as guides.
Certain Sabbath traditions among the Jews are good for us to utilize to remind us of its meaning. For example, the lighting of the candles reminds us of when God said "let there be light." So here is a Jewish webpage explaining that morning ritual on Sabbath. It then discusses the Sabbath ritual of sanctifying the day over a glass of wine. And the importance of sharing bread among your family.
Then there is the conclusion of Sabbath as night comes on the Sabbath day (daylight hours). The blessings and ritual that Jews follow which we can enrich our spiritual experience by copying is at this link. These are called Havdallah blessings which are two: a praise of God and blessings over the food and wine to prepare for dinner.
Jews typically begin Sabbath observance on Friday night -- which I believe began as a hedge around the Law rather than a principle of the Law about the duration of Sabbath. (I contend the Sabbath "day" is the daylight portion of what we call Saturday.) This is a good hedge. We can be mindful of Friday night to rest then too, from a valid hedging purpose.
On Friday night are blessings. They are usually spoken in Hebrew, which you can try to speak. You can listen or participate karaoke style with them with versions of the blessings online. Here is one link and here is another link -- the files are playable in Mp3 and downloadable as well. If you press "Printable version," it gives you the English equivalent to read yourself.
Incidentally, on the same page is a basic blessing of God to use when you thank God for the bread we eat:
Blessing God For the Bread
Baruch Atah Adonai, Eloheinu Melech haolam,
Hamotzi lechem min haaretz.
Our praise to You, Eternal our God, Sovereign of the universe,
Who brings forth bread from the earth. (URJ)
For more information on "blessings (grace) after the meal," see the topic on this link.
What About Doing Business With Non-Believers on Sabbath?
I address in this article whether doing business with a non-believer on Sabbath is a sin.
Jesus Did Not Abolish Sabbath
Some try to argue Jesus Himself violated Sabbath, and thus showed He abolished it. Rather, Jesus simply violated man-made rules about the Sabbath, and then used astonishment about this as a teaching moment of how to validly apply the Sabbath command. The article “Sabbath” in Anchor Bible Dictionary (ed. David N. Freedman) Vol. 5 at 855-56 explains:
“At times Jesus is interpreted to have abrogated or suspended the Sabbath commandment on the basis of controversies brought about by Sabbath healings and other acts. Careful analysis of the respective passages does not seem to give credence to this interpretation. The action of plucking ears of grain on the Sabbath by the disciples is particularly important in this matter. Jesus makes a foundational pronouncement...'The Sabbath was made for man and not man for the Sabbath’ (Mark 2:27). The disciples’ act of plucking grain infringed against the rabbinic halakhah of minute casuistry in which it was forbidden to reap, thresh, winnow, and grind on the Sabbath....Jesus reforms the Sabbath and restores it to its rightful place as designed in creation, where the Sabbath is made for all mankind and not specifically for Israel, as claimed by normative Judaism...”
Further Research of All Views on Sabbath
William Armstrong, Is Saturday or Sunday The Christian Sabbath? : A Refutation of Sabattarianism (1880) -books.google.com - relying upon Paul
"When Did Sunday Become the Christian Day of Worship?" (webpage of abcog) - defends Saturday as Sabbath
Scott Nelson, What Day is the Sabbath (defense of Lunar sabbath view)
Lunar Sabbath Illusion (critique of Lunar sabbath view)